Category Archives: BIRI

There is Help for Battered Athletes and TBI patients!


A CT of the head years after a traumatic brain...

A CT of the head years after a traumatic brain injury

One of the doctors that has been at the forefront of the battle against traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is Dr. Daniel Amen. He has been working with athletes, military servicemen, and other brain trauma patients to provide a treatment regimen to help them to better cope with living with the effects of CTE and TBI — memory loss, dementia and depression. As Dr. Amen said recently, “My hope is that through increased awareness and education we can help these athletes before it’s too late.”

Since people with the CTE and TBI condition often do not have visible scars, it is hard for most people, including some physicians and other medical providers, to understand the extent to which short-term memory loss affects one’s ability to cope with daily living. Things that other people take for granted just takes much longer to do. Unless one is very organized, one can spend an inordinate amount of time looking for things that one needs on a daily basis. Just getting ready to leave the house for work or an appointment becomes a stressful  ordeal unless one has a routine that is not disturbed in any fashion.

Realization of the Consequences of Brain Trauma

It takes a while — maybe years for person with a CTE or TBI condition to fully understand that their brain no longer functions properly. Those that are lucky enough to have proper treatment may come to the realization sooner that those who do not receive treatment or worse still have to contend with skeptical or uncaring physicians and medical providers.

For instance, I have never had any neurological treatment or rehabilitation for the brain trauma that I sustained while working at Ameriprise Financial in July 2004. It took a number of years for me to realize that I had to take care of my own health rather than succumb to despair. I used my skills as a research analyst to search for articles on traumatic brain injuries so I could better understand what had happened to my brain and why I was experiencing short-term memory problems while my long-term memory was so crystal clear. In fact, I believe my creativity even increased as a result of the brain trauma resulting in a deluge of new and often very brilliant ideas. The only problem is that if I don’t write them down immediately,I would not be able to recall the  ideas after a short time. As I now sometimes joke that — my long-term memory is probably near genius level while my short term memory is significantly impaired. For someone that is particularly cerebral, with a background as a money market portfolio manager and an investment research analyst, one can only imagine my frustration with the situation. What I have essentially had to do is my own “self rehabilitation” using nutrition, naturopathic solutions, and coping mechanisms and systems that I have developed by myself which may not be the most efficient methods but nevertheless do work for me. Now I have the daunting task of going through an administrative hearing regarding the State of Washington‘s Department of Labor & Industries (L&I)‘s  premature termination of my medical benefits and I have to do it by myself, if I don’t get any legal help! A tall order for me but I am determined to go the distance to ensure that the State of Washington‘s Department of Labor & Industries (L&I) ensures compliance with workplace safety standards and more importantly, that L&I changes the way it treats workplace traumatic brain injury cases. A traumatic brain injury is not tantamount to a broken limb and should not be treated as such!

Coping with the Effects of Brain Trauma

Ultimately, one has to come to terms with the fact that the brain trauma has caused a fundamental change in one’s brain function. The best way to deal with the effects of the trauma is to accept it, the same way that one would accept the loss of a limb, and then find the best way to cope and live with it. It is not an easy journey coming to terms with the loss of brain function. High performance super athletes,  military servicemen, and intellectuals always like to perform at or above  a certain level of excellence.  It is very difficult and frightening for super-achievers that suffer a brain trauma to come to terms with the loss of a part or most of their  brain function. It is even more frustrating when one has to contend with all the pseudo-brain specialists that have never read a single pamphlet or sheet on brain science nor have any clue about the effects of CTE or TBI but think they know more than the brain specialists. Anabel Maya, a psychologist who is an expert on memory wrote an article titled “A Closer Look Into Memory” and she admits that she is fascinated by memory because of the amount of information that the human brain is able to store; however, she states that she does not completely understand memory — she is still learning about it!

Support of Family and Friends!

It is really important that people that have sustained brain trauma have support from their families and friends. Support also means understanding how the trauma affects the brain and how to help the person cope with the effects of the brain trauma. I am lucky to have the support of my family and close  friends and I will forever  be grateful to them. I would not have survived without their love and support! I have information on this blog that can help families to understand TBI and CTE and what role they can play to help their loved ones to cope and live with the condition.

You are not alone — there is lots of help!

Some people with a CTE or TBI condition receive treatment; however, there are a significant number of people like me that  receive little or no treatment and have to find ways to cope and live with the condition. The result of no treatment is despair and depression that eventually leads some to suicide! Some insurers like Zurich advise their clients to take precautionary steps to minimize workplace injuries, report injuries in a timely manner in order to start treatment soon after the injury occurs so that to that the employee recovers and returns to work resulting in lower worker compensation costs to the employer. Some employers don’t even bother to follow state mandated safety guidelines, do not report injury claims and time to ensure proper and timely treatment of their employees, and do not care what happens to the employee that has been injured due to their own negligence.  The only thing that matters to such employers is return to shareholders and management bonuses. The injured employee and their family be damned!They are much more interested in covering their tracks and paying the lowest premiums they can muster than doing the right thing!

However, there is help available.  Dave Duerson, Junior Seau and Ray Easterling did not need to take their own lives out of frustration, fear and despair! Most likely they could have been saved, if they had been under the care of physicians and other providers that specialize in the treatment of patients with CTE and TBI conditions.

Resources Available for Brain Injury Treatment

Amen Clinic: Dr. Daniel Amen of the Amen Clinic has a practice that focuses on helping former athletes,  servicemen and others that have sustained brain trauma. He has posted the article below on his blog to let people know that they need not commit suicide when there is lot of help available for them. You can visit his website to learn more and also for the contact information.

Brain Injury Research Institute (BIRI): Dr. Bennett I. Omalu, the forensic pathologist that discovered the presence of “Tau Proteins” in the brains of Mike Webster and other dead athletes and who coined the term “chronic traumatic encephalopathy” (CTE), and his partner Dr. Julian E. Bailes established the Brain Injury Research Institute (BIRI)  to continue their research on CTE and also to treat people that have sustained brain trauma and brain injury from multiple concussions.You can contact them by visiting their website.

Federal Agencies: The Federal Government has established  a dedicated section on its HRSA website to provide information and guidance to doctors, patients, and schools on dealing with Traumatic Brain Injury . The Center for Diseases Control (CDC) also has a section on its website that is dedicated to traumatic brain injury.

Military servicemen and veterans are returning from war with high incident rates of brain trauma which used to be generally diagnosed as post-traumatic stress syndrome. Now the Federal Government is on top of it game and military servicemen and veterans are receiving state of the art diagnosis and treatment for traumatic brain injuries. The Defense Departments’ Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury (CDoE) was established in November 2007 to integrate knowledge and identify, evaluate and disseminate evidence based practices and standards for the treatment of psychological health and TBI within the Defense Department. The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC) serves active duty military, their beneficiaries, and veterans with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) through state-of-the-art clinical care, innovative clinical research initiatives and educational programs.

State Agencies: Your best bet is to start with your State’s Brain Injury Association  of  America(BIAA). You can contact your State BIA‘s office by visiting the Brain Injury Association  of  America(BIAA)‘s website and then click on the map to select your own State.

Web: The internet abounds with information on brain injuries. You can do your own research using Google to type in keywords. Please see the tags on this page for examples of keywords that you can use for your search..

Brain Health Resources Blog: This blog has lots of information and links to help you to quickly find the resources that are available. If you have a question for me, kindly leave a comment and I will revert to you to guide you to find the information that you need.

Disclaimer: Please consult your own doctor first for guidance on your brain injury condition and treatment options.

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There is Help for These Battered Athletes

Shock, dismay and grief descended upon family, friends, and fans when news broke that former 12-time pro bowl NFL linebacker, Junior Seau had taken his own life.  The news came as shock to all, even those that were close to him, but this tragic story is becoming far too common.

Just two weeks ago, former Atlanta Falcons safety Ray Easterling, 62, shot himself in Richmond, Va.  His wife, Mary Ann Easterling, told news reporters that her husband suffered from depression, insomnia and dementia after his football career.  Another ex-NFL player Dave Duerson, a former Chicago Bears Pro Bowl safety, committed suicide nearly 15 months ago by shooting himself in the chest.  Duerson, 50, thought he suffered from dementia that fueled his depression. His suicide note included the request: “Please, see that my brain is given to the NFL’s brain bank.”

Post-death exams of Duerson’s brain showed he suffered moderately advanced evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy — a progressive degenerative disease related to repeated concussive blows. The disease has been linked to at least 18 deceased NFL players.

I just wrote about how serious a problem CTE is for athletes in contact sports and returning soldiers in last week’s newsletter and here we are again dealing with another heartbreaking story.  Junior Seau was a legend, but even legends cannot escape the ravages of chronic brain damage.  There is help for these athletes and anyone suffering from chronic traumatic brain injuries, depression, and irritability and memory problems.

I began studying the effects of football on brain health in 1999 when Brent Boyd, a former NFL player, came to the Amen Clinics.  After Anthony Davis came to the clinic in 2007 our work with active and former NFL players really took off when we partnered with the Los Angeles Chapter of the Retired NFL Players Association to perform the world’s largest brain imaging/brain rehabilitation study.

As part of the rehabilitation study we scanned the brains of 116 NFL players and found that 113 suffered brain damage and the level of brain damage was just awful.  People who have chronic, traumatic brain injuries, which almost all football players have because they get hit in the head thousands of times in their careers; have a much higher incident of depression and suicidal ideas and suicidal behavior.  Thirty percent of the players we studied had issues with severe depression.  That is four times the rate of depression among the general population!  Even worse, linebackers, like Junior Seau, who lead with their heads on the field, suffer the most significant damage.  The study showed patterns in damage to the front part of the brain and temporal lobes, under the temples and behind the eyes, which manage memory, mood stability and impulse and temper control.

The good news is the brains of contact-sport players and soldiers can be rehabilitated.  We have conducted three clinical studies with 116 active and former players from the National Football League here at the Amen Clinics and each study shows that it’s not only possible, it’s likely, that with a brain-directed health protocol, significant improvement can be experienced in decision-making, reasoning, depression, mood and memory.

Our studies found significant evidence that, fortunately, there are treatment protocols that can often reverse many of the symptoms caused by brain damage and improve brain function.

The studies include:

  1. Effects of Elevated Body Mass in Professional American Football Players on rCBF and Cognitive Function, Transl Psychiatry (2012) 2, eK, doi:10.1038/tp.2011.67.
  2. Impact of Playing Professional American Football on Long Term Brain Function. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 23:1, Winter 2011, 98-106.
  3. Reversing Brain Damage in Former NFL Players: Implications for TBI and Substance Abuse Rehabilitation. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 43 (1), 2011 Online publication date: 08 April 2011.

Junior may have damaged his pre-frontal cortex, which is responsible for decision-making.  Brain trauma symptoms can appear decades after the playing days and can include dementia, memory loss, violent behavior, obesity, mental illness and depression. And unfortunately, suicide is more common in people who have experienced brain trauma.

Playing football is a brain damaging sport and for those that are going to play it, my message would be to get your brain examined before you play and after you stop as well as any time you get a concussion.  The best way to prevent tragedies like these from happening aside from avoiding the things that are harmful to the brain, are early detection and treatment.  My hope is that through increased awareness and education we can help these athletes before it’s too late.

Source: http://70.32.73.82/blog/5758/there-is-help-for-these-battered-athletes/

World-Famous Doctor Helps With Junior Seau’s Autopsy


Dr. Bennet Omalu, co-founder of the Brain Injury Research Institute, was in San Diego to assist medical examiner

By Paul Krueger
|  Friday, May 4, 2012  |  Updated 6:33 PM PDT
World-Famous Doctor Helps With Junior Seau's Autopsy

Junior Seau looks on during a press conference to announce his retirement from the NFL on August 14, 2006 at the Chargers Training Camp in San Diego, California.

A world-famous doctor has been in San Diego to help with Junior Seau’s autopsy, NBC San Diego has confirmed.

That autopsy was performed Thursday at the county medical examiner’s office.

It will hopefully provide answers about why the veteran linebacker died of an apparent suicide on Wednesday.

The county medical examiner was assisted by Dr. Bennet Omalu, a forensic pathologist and co-founder of the Brain Injury Research Institute, which studies the impact of concussions on health.

Omalu’s participation in the Seau autopsy was confirmed today by a spokesperson for the Research Institute.

Omalu is also the chief medical officer for San Joaquin County, California.

The Seau autopsy won’t be completed for weeks, but right now, doctors know important new details about the condition of Seau’s brain because they were able to examine it during the autopsy.

One expert tells NBC San Diego that a pathologist can immediately see if the brain has been damaged by the impact of repeated concussions.

“Typically, the frontal lobes and the temporal lobes take most of the damage, so I would expect those areas will be looked at with some scrutiny,” says Dr. Jerome Stenehjem, of Sharp Memorial Rehabilitation in Kearny Mesa.

Stenehjem says cross-sections of a brain damaged by concussions will show shrunken lobes, compared to those in a healthy brain.

“It’s almost like a raisin shrinking down,” Stenehjem said, in describing the appearance of the damaged brain matter.

Stenehjem and other experts say repeated concussions can cause brain damage, including dementia and depression, which can lead to suicide.

Gary Plummer, a former NFL linebacker who played on the San Diego Chargers during the Seau years, tells NBC San Diego that a good NFL linebacker will suffer several “grade one,” or minor concussions, in every game.

“I can guarantee that in 20 years, he had easily over 1,000 concussions,” Plummer says.

Source: World-Famous Doctor Helps With Junior Seau’s Autopsy | NBC San Diego

Read more:

http://espn.go.com/nfl/story/_/id/7888497/sources-forensic-pathologist-credited-identifying-cte-involved-junior-seau-autopsy

Culled Comment from the ESPN link above:

#1: “I have had 13 concussions myself. While my friends, family and co-workers are all well aware of the memory loss, that is all that they are aware of. The depression, the headaches, the sensitivity to light at times all come with the territory as well but nobody is willing to admit it to friends. Long term concussion side effects are not a joke and something I have to live with everyday. I am only 25. I was once dumb and took pride in getting right back after having my “bell rung”. Now, I regret it everyday. Don’t just look at football. Wrestling and Boxing have it too.”

#2: “As an engineer I can guarantee you that both helmets and mouth-guards can be further optimized to reduce vibrations in the skull after a collision. To say that they will 100% prevent concussions is obviously far-reaching, but we could easily prevent 60% of the current concussions with better protection. The Brain will always bounce around in the skull, but creating damping mechanisms inside the helmet and with a mouthguard can prevent a huge percentage of the damage cause by these “Brain vibrations”.”

#3: “The Culture, behavior and technique is the answer. The only reason the helmet is used as a weapon is because it is glorified and even sometimes encouraged. Some have complained that we are creating a watered down game. But, i say they miss the point of football to begin with. The object is to move the ball down the field and score with strategy. Not see how many people you can Spear which IS ILLEGAL! Maybe all of this with Junior, Dave and Ray will make us do some soul searching and find a way to make them proud of the evolution of the game! Look I have coached 20+ years. I have won 4 championships and have NEVER had one of my players carted off or taken away in an ambulance. Why cause I teach proper technique. I teach them how to defend themselves!”

My comments about Junior Seau’s suicide!


Junior Seau

Junior Seau (Photo credit: Dave Sizer)

I posted the following comments to a friend’s facebook Wall when he first posted the story of Junior Seau‘s suicide. At the time, I did not know much about Junior Seau; however, I had an inkling that the suicide could be CTE related. My sincere sympathy to Junior Seau’s family. May his soul rest in eternal peace!

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There has been a spate of traumatic brain injuries in the NFL which the NFL was not willing to acknowledge until 2010 when a Congressional Judicial

Hearing forced them to face the reality of what is happening to their retired players. Most of them sustained multiple concussions that were not treated but they were forced to return to play almost immediately. They live in constant pain and have short- and long-term memory losses which is like a living nightmare. Short-term memory is essential to daily living.

Pitt Football Alums Tony Dorsett at Gino Torre...

When Dave Duerson committed suicide he did so in such a way that he would not damage his brain so that it be could studied. It was a virtual sacrifice for medical research to help other players that are TBI sufferers. Tony Dorsett is also having similar problems and he has sued the NFL. It would not surprise me to find out that Junior Seau took the same path out of a life of misery of living with TBI.

The fact is that TBI is a new frontier for most doctors. Most of them don’t understand TBI and they are often dismissive of TBI incidents but the effects are degenerative so years after the victims, especially children and teens, that have concussions suffer with no explicable reason, There are also college players with TBI conditions.

The US Federal government is now focusing on TBI. They have a website and doctors are now required to do CT scans hours apart after a concussion incident because bleeding in the brain does not show up immediately after a TBI incident. Six or eight hours later — the bleeding shows up while the initial scan may have been clean. There are also guidelines for “return to play” for schools, colleges and the NFL. Players can no longer be returned to play immediately following a concussion incident. http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/

There has always been knowledge of “Pugilist’s Punch Drunk Syndrome” which was associated only with boxers. It was not until Dr. Bennett Omalu — a renowned Nigerian neuropathologist — examined the brain of Mike Webster and other players whose brains were sent to him after they passed that the understanding of TBI which he termed “Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy” (CTE) and the implications of concussions among the general public and NFL players was understood. The concussion results in the deposit of “Tau proteins” (a gunk of dead nerve cells) in the brain which interferes with electrical signals in the brain and brain function that depends on which part of the brain is affected.

Most NFL players suffered multiple concussions which can occur over several parts of their brain so their brain function can be impaired in a significant way. Just imagine the nightmare of losing both your short-term and long-term memory and also being in constant pain from the injuries. There was no documented evidence of TBI in his case; however, everything that I have read about Walter Payton seems to also point in that direction. http://www.braininjuryresearchinstitute.org/archives/bennet-omalus-testimony-to-house-judiciary-committee/

As Dr. Bennett Omalu testified, the deposit of Tau Protein does not show up on CT Scans and MRI. It cannot be seen with the naked eye. It was only after he sent samples of Mike Webster’s brain to a lab for specialized exam that the tau proteins showed their ugly face. Like Dave Duerson, Junior Seau may have shot himself in the chest to avoid damaging his brain so that it can be studied. If it turns out that there are tau proteins, his family can be compensated when the NFL lawsuit is settled. The most important thing with TBI is awareness. When people understand what is really happening with their brain and how best to cope with and live with TBI, it is half the battle. The other part of the battle is finding a way to live with it so that you can minimize the impact and not beat yourself up over every setback but take the punches and roll with it!

This is why I set up my blog to help people to know that they are not alone and that there are resources available to help them cope with TBI (aka CTE). I feel that people will despair less if they understand the condition and have no fear of what is going on. Because it is not a visible injury, doctors dismiss it. When people think of a brain injury they expect to see visible scars. Most people including friends, co-workers and family members can also be very dismissive. However, families are also impacted in a very negative way and they also suffer when their loved one, often a former high performer, no longer functions at the level that they once performed and they are at a loss to understanding what is really going on, and helpless because they have no clue how to help the person. The more that people know and understand, the better for the TBI victim and their family.

I have to add that Dr. Bennet Omalu, a Nigerian, was attacked by the NFL. It was not until doctors at Boston University corroborated his work that the NFL accepted his findings. I spoke to Bennett and he told me that they did not believe him when he first published his work.  They even attributed the term CTE, which Dr. Omalu coined, to the Boston University researchers. Now he is widely recognized for his ground-breaking work. Dr. Bennet Omalu also collaborates with Dr. Daniel Amen to help the NFL players.

Read more: http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5iVyZprPTUsS7r0vk1PQfdOWXzsjA?docId=1365dbb3557f41359bc44d67b21aad83

Game Brain


Game Brain
Let’s say you run a multibillion-dollar football league. And let’s say the scientific community—starting with one young pathologist in Pittsburgh and growing into a chorus of neuroscientists across the country—comes to you and says concussions are making your players crazy, crazy enough to kill themselves, and here, in these slices of brain tissue, is the proof. Do you join these scientists and try to solve the problem, or do you use your power to discredit them?

By Jeanne Marie Laskas
GQ Magazine
X-ray image by Nick Veasay
October 2009

On a foggy, steel gray Saturday in September 2002, Bennet Omalu arrived at the Allegheny County coroner’s office and got his assignment for the day: Perform an autopsy on the body of Mike Webster, a professional football player. Omalu did not, unlike most 34-year-old men living in a place like Pittsburgh, have an appreciation for American football. He was born in the jungles of Biafra during a Nigerian air raid, and certain aspects of American life puzzled him. From what he could tell, football was rather a pointless game, a lot of big fat guys bashing into each other. In fact, had he not been watching the news that morning, he may not have suspected anything unusual at all about the body on the slab.

The coverage that week had been bracing and disturbing and exciting. Dead at 50. Mike Webster! Nine-time Pro Bowler. Hall of Famer. “Iron Mike,” legendary Steelers center for fifteen seasons. His life after football had been mysterious and tragic, and on the news they were going on and on about it. What had happened to him? How does a guy go from four Super Bowl rings to…pissing in his own oven and squirting Super Glue on his rotting teeth? Mike Webster bought himself a Taser gun, used that on himself to treat his back pain, would zap himself into unconsciousness just to get some sleep. Mike Webster lost all his money, or maybe gave it away. He forgot. A lot of lawsuits. Mike Webster forgot how to eat, too. Soon Mike Webster was homeless, living in a truck, one of its windows replaced with a garbage bag and tape.

It bothered Omalu to hear this kind of chatter—especially about a dead guy. But Omalu had always fancied himself an advocate for the dead. That’s how he viewed his job: a calling. A forensic pathologist was charged with defending and speaking for the departed—a translator for those still here. A corpse held a story, told in tissue, patterns of trauma, and secrets in cells.

In the autopsy room, Omalu snapped on his gloves and approached the slab. He noted that Mike Webster’s body was sixty-nine inches long and weighed 244 pounds. He propped up the head and picked up his scalpel and sliced open the chest and cracked open the ribs. He took out the heart and found everything he expected of a man who was believed to have died of a heart attack, as was the case with Webster. Then he made a cut from behind the right ear, across the forehead, to the other ear and around. He peeled the scalp away from the skull in two flaps. With the electric saw he carefully cut a cap out of the skull, pulled off the cap, and gently, like approaching a baby in the birth canal, he reached for the brain.

Omalu loved the brain. Of all the organs in the body, it was easily his favorite. He thought of it sort of like Miss America. Such a diva! So high-maintenance: It requires more energy to operate than any other organ. The brain! That was his love and that was his joy, and that’s why his specialty was neuropathology.

Omalu stared at Mike Webster’s brain. He kept thinking, How did this big athletic man end up so crazy in the head? He was thinking about football and brain trauma. The leap in logic was hardly extreme. He was thinking, Dementia pugilistica? “Punch-drunk syndrome,” they called it in boxers. The clinical picture was somewhat like Mike Webster’s: severe dementia—delusion, paranoia, explosive behavior, loss of memory—caused by repeated blows to the head. Omalu figured if chronic bashing of the head could destroy a boxer’s brain, couldn’t it also destroy a football player’s brain? Could that be what made Mike Webster crazy?

Of course, football players wear helmets, good protection for the skull. But the brain? Floating around inside that skull and, upon impact, sloshing into its walls. Omalu thought: I’ve seen so many cases of people like motorcyclists wearing helmets. On the surface is nothing, but you open the skull and the brain is mush.

So Omalu carried Mike Webster’s brain to the cutting board and turned it upside down and on its side and then over again. It appeared utterly normal. Regular folds of gray matter. No mush. No obvious contusions, like in dementia pugilistica. No shrinkage like you would see in Alzheimer’s disease. He reviewed the CT and MRI scans. Normal. That might have been the end of it. He already had a cause of death. But Omalu couldn’t let it go. He wanted to know more about the brain. There had to be an answer. People don’t go crazy for no reason.

He went to his boss, pathologist Cyril Wecht, and asked if he could study the brain, run special tests, a microscopic analysis of the brain tissue, where there might be a hidden story.

There was nothing routine about this request. Another boss might have said, “Stick with the protocol,” especially to a rookie such as Omalu, who had not yet earned a track record, who was acting only on a hunch. But Wecht was famously never one to shy away from a high-profile case—he had examined JFK, Elvis, JonBenét Ramsey—and he said, “Fine.” He said, “Do what you need to do.”

A deeply religious man, Omalu regarded Wecht’s permission as a kind of blessing.

*****

It was late, maybe midnight, when Bob Fitzsimmons, a lawyer working in a renovated firehouse in Wheeling, West Virginia, got a call from the Pittsburgh coroner’s office. It was not unusual for him to be at the office that late; he was having a bad week. He struggled to understand the man’s accent on the phone.

Read Morehttp://www.gq.com/sports/profiles/200909/nfl-players-brain-dementia-study-memory-concussions#ixzz1KiJHRyIP